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Question, Response or Comment
Please help me find information
on hydrogen flammability limits as a function of temperature
(0 to 100 C) and pressure (75 kPa to several atmospheres).
Primarily I need data for mixtures of hydrogen in air.
flammability in air numbers are shown in Flammability
and Explosion Limits
of H2 and H2/CO: A literature
N. Cohen September 9, 1952, The Aerospace Corporation.
of Gases and Vapors, US
Bureau of Mines, 1952
of Hydrogen Safety Engineering I and II
ebook at www.bookboon.com ; search
Source: Karen Hall, FCHEA
How many feet for an approach distance can
electrical devices be near hydrogen and hydrogen sealing
systems suitable for Class I “Division D” (sic) locations?
If there is a standard for it could
you reference it for me? If not what would be the recommended
“Best Practice” for this situation?
Tim Embree, Oglethorpe Power
Of course every situation should be reviewed
individually to address unique potential hazards, but the most
probable answer is 15 feet. Electrical devices beyond 15 feet
from a potential hydrogen leak site can be treated as ordinary
equipment. Those within 15 feet are to be listed equipment
suitable for Class I, Group B, Division 1 & 2 locations.
NFPA 70 Chapter 5 – Special
Occupancies Article 500
o NFPA 497
o NFPA 499
o NFPA 497
o NFPA 70B
specific reference to 15 feet can be found in NFPA
55-2010, Table 10.3.2.2.1, item 7.]
Douglas Rode, Hydrogen Safety
John Boyd, Boyd Hydrogen
am on a research of a PEM fuel cell of high temperature. This
fuel cell is working by hydrogen, and at the moment, we have
some leaks in the device. In the leak pressure test, we have
leaks such as 1mbar/min. the leak test is performed with
nitrogen and we are frightened to use hydrogen because we do
not know if that amount of leaks are suitable. We have been
looking for standards or reports in order to determine if it
is dangerous to work with hydrogen with such leaks.
I would like to ask you for any help that
could help us to define if our amount of leaks is normal and
we can work with hydrogen or if it is not possible.
- Compañía Española de Sistemas Aeronaúticos S.A.
We use hydrogen gas for all leak tests and use nitrogen gas
for high pressure burst tests.
Your leakage rates are low (1
millibar/min = 0.015psi/min = 0.1kPa/min) - this is good.
However, it's not your leakage rate
that is the concern for safety, it's the flammable
concentration in a given volume that is created by the leak
and if this is close to a source of ignition (flame/spark).
We test our system in a
well-ventilated area so the volume of air is large compared to
the volume of hydrogen that may leak. We must prevent a
concentration of hydrogen from reaching the Lower Flammability
Limit (LFL) of 4% by volume (LFL = 4% by volume for hydrogen
gas), otherwise a source of spark may ignite a fire.
1. Take the volume of the room or
test area and calculate how long the 1mbar/min source would
have to leak before the room filled with 4% of hydrogen; then
determine the minimum ventilation into/out of the room to
2. If you can't prevent the
flammable concentration due to small volumes, no ventilation,
or high leak rates, then you must keep all sources of ignition
away from the gas. In the USA, if an electrical component is
used around flammable gas, it must be certified to prevent
ignition (similar to ATEX in the EU).
3. We use a flammable gas detector
when we test. The detector is adjusted to sound an alarm when
the gas reaches 2% H2 by volume - we want to take action to
prevent the gas from reaching the LFL. We use a calibrated gas
for this purpose (we purchase a tank of calibrated 2% H2 by
volume pressurized gas and use this to verify our detector
each day we test).
looking for information of the best practices for hydrogen
safety. We use hydrogen to cool generators for the production
of electricity were can I find information specific on these
Josué W. Sánchez
Ing. Conservación Predictiva
recommend the following websites:
1. H2 Incident Reporting and Lessons Learned
2. H2 Safety Best Practices
Also, the website www.ieee.org has
some references to "hydrogen-cooled" turbines
there a CSA joint committee for development of stationary fuel
cell standards? Specifically interested in standards or
standard development regarding hydrogen fittings.
Hiblow USA, Inc.
America has an activity, HGV
for Fuel Dispensing Equipment and Components,
which is developing standards to address dispensing hydrogen
for hydrogen gas powered vehicles. One standard in that
4.10 Performance of Fittings for Compressed Hydrogen Gas and Hydrogen Rich Gas
is addressing fittings
to be used with compressed hydrogen gas.
am interested in CE marking for micro fuel cell products.
Specifically, I’m wondering to which European Directives such
a product will have to be certified.
The Low Voltage directive does not
seem to apply in general - micro fuel cell power systems
must be < 60 Vdc according to IEC 62282-6-100, and the LVD
applies to 50 V and up, but many micro fuel cell systems
will be far below 50 V – so what directives must they
Any guidance would be much appreciated.
Meaghan Miller, Angstrom Power
if your product falls below the scope of the Low Voltage
Directive, you still have to address the Electromagnetic
Compatibility (EMC) Directive. Hopefully, others seeing this
question will provide additional input.
am sabaripandiyan student from National Institute of
Technology, trichy, India. In fuel cell data sheet it is shown
that the nominal power and maximum power. If we operate the
fuel cell in the maximum rating instead of nominal rating for
a long time what will happen? can we operate like that?
exact answer lies with the designers of the fuel cell, and
the definitions of terms; “nominal” and “maximum” power.
According to IEC 62282-1 edition 2, Terminology, the accepted
international fuel cell glossary,
RATED POWER – maximum continuous electric
output power that a fuel cell power system is designed to
achieve under normal operating conditions specified by the manufacturer
You may have
a fuel cell that can withstand a peak power for a short
duration. Possibly in your case, NOMINAL is being used as
RATED, and MAXIMUM for that peak power. You have to check with
the designers of your power system. If you can identify the
manufacturer of the data sheet and the model number of the
fuel cell, we can possibly get a more definitive answer.
I want to purchase a fuel cell from USA for my used car in
there some canadian regulation for fuel cells in cars, trucks
I know of no regulations for modifying your personal car.
Regulations for cars are generally federal regulations
for manufacturers addressing
issues such as crash worthiness, seat belts, air bags,
fleet mileage, etc.
I question whether you will be able to purchase a fuel cell in
the USA for your car. Currently most are being hand-made for
research and development purposes.
We are currently developing new materials
for DMFC bipolar plates. We are trying to find targets /
standards for the same, but upon searching we found that
the information is too fragmented. Is there any document
or information you have on the bipolar plate standards /
It would be great if you can point us in some direction,
Thanking you for your time,
Department of Mechanical Engineering
The University of Texas at Austin
A: For starters, I would suggest
CSA America FC1, Fuel
Cell Power Systems, Section
Strength Test (without
rupture, fracture or deformation)
1 ½ times maximum operating pressure
operating < ½ psi 3 times maximum
operating > ½ psi 1.5 times maximum operating
Other potential sources include:
Fuel Cell Council Protocol
on Fuel Cell Component Testing
Working Group #11
Cell Test Method for Polymer Electrolyte Fuel Cells
Q: Thank you for your useful
website. I would like to know more about the sea shipment
regulations for metal hydride canisters, specifically UN 3479.
Would you have more info on that, or could you redirect me?
Mobility Market Manager
A: UN 3479 addresses liquefied
flammable gas ,such as butane.
Nations Sub-Committee of Experts on the Transportation of
Dangerous Goods documents
that addresses hydrogen in metal hydrides are:
3468 Hydrogen in a
Metal Hydride Storage System
3478 Fuel Cell
Cartridge containing Hydrogen in Metal Hydride
An overview of the subject
can be found at www.hydrogenandfuelcellsafety.info/2007/oct/usfcc.asp
my pursuit to get on-board hydrogen from water recognized as a
viable efficiency/emissions reduction technology, I have been
requested by the EPA to provide documentation on safety
standards for this type of fuel cell.
Being one of
thousands of such developers, this issue is demanding an
What studies have been done regarding
utilizing a hydrogen-oxygen mixture as a catalyst for
hydrocarbon fueled engines?
How may I access any safety
standards applicable to this technology?
have been made to address the sheer number of garage-level
tinkerers to assist them in their modifications?
Wisteria House Products
It is assumed that you are proposing
to introduce hydrogen into a modified internal combustion
engine. If this is the case, you will want to address:
SAE J2578 Recommended
Practice for General Fuel Cell Vehicle Safety, and
SAE J2579 Recommended
Practice for Fuel Systems in Fuel Cell and Other Hydrogen
If you are also generating hydrogen
on-board the vehicle, you may also want to address one of the
CSA International Requirement No. 5.99
Outline of Investigation UL Subject
2264B Gaseous Hydrogen Generation
– Water Reaction,
Hydrogen Generators Using Fuel Processing Technology – Part
Hydrogen Generators Using Electrolysis Process.
If your question is more specific,
we would be happy to help on this Bulletin Board or off-line.
Q: Can you please
let me know the safe distance required for installing an auto
gas dispensing station from a residential property, as per
The Model Building Code in the United States requires a
minimum distance of 10 feet between fuel dispensing (gasoline,
natural gas or hydrogen) and a service station property line.
Reference: 2006 International Fire Code, Chapter 22 Motor
Fuel Dispensing, 2220.127.116.11, 2208.3.1, 2209.3.1
(Locating a service station next to residential property is
controlled by local zoning regulations.)
Q: What is the OSHA
Standard for the distance between a fuel station and another
building, i.e. mess hall?
More information is needed. What is the fuel? Distance to
dispensing site, storage (above ground/underground) or
Q: I would like to
learn about all the necessary entities required to start a
fuel cell production facility.
Eswar Reddy D
There are many different types of fuel cells for different
applications (stationary on-site power, portable power,
automotive power, hand-held electronics, etc,)
About Fuel Cells
Types of Fuel Cells
Benefits of Fuel Cells
Doing a science program for cable outlet. Need
4X3 NTSC video of a hydrogen fueling station, anyone have such
Try the California Fuel cell Partnership (
I am looking for infos related to fuel cell's
reliability in a wider sense.
Marko Gerbec, Ph.d
Jozef Stefan Institute
If your interested in stationary fuel cell
applications, there are some published field data:
a. Long runs:
over 8000 hours of continuous operation before a scheduled
shutdown for annual maintenance
over 90% ( good time over calendar times ) but you must be
careful of the definitions of what in included in "good
If your looking for
classical reliability data:
mean-time-between-forced outages or
b. failure rate (
failures per million operating hours ) there is probably
If you could be
more specific (application & type of data) we will try to find
Q: I've been working on
industrial fire and explosion hazards for 20 years, but I've
not done much on hydrogen.
I'm interested in a
facility for making fuel cells, and banks of fuel cells, and
also compressing hydrogen to perhaps 75 bar, and some high
for me are siting and fire protection for the high pressure
tank, ventilation for parts of the building with low and high
pressure equipment, and hazardous area classification.
The starting point
is to round up the most recent relevant standards.
Compressed gases association has a code 33, but there is very
little from from European and International standards.
other documents that I really ought to see would be welcome.
I'm student of Poznan University of Technology in Poland. I'm
writing a thesis about applications for fuel cells in
automobiles. I'm looking for a actual applications for fuel
cells in automobiles. I need specific information, like
efficiency, output power, type of propulsion in those
vehicles. If you can help me, I will be grateful.
Most of the information that you are requesting
is considered confidential
by OEM's; however,
you can find some "efficiency" data on a DOE
As for "output
power" and "type of propulsion", check the DaimlerChrysler
F-Cell Home Page at
Editor (with input
from Jesse Schneider, DaimlerChrysler)
Hydrogen generators for marine applications.
Are there any hydrogen generators built for marine power
Proton Energy (www.protonenergy.com)
sells a 2.2 kg/day PEM based water electrolyzer, HOGEN
S-series, designed for salt air exposure. It is also CE
Voller Energy, this June, will begin prototype testing on
a 1 kW environmentally friendly fuel cell that aims to replace
commonly used diesel generators in sailing and motor yachts.
Hydrogen generators for the home and car.
Where do I go to find codes and
standards/guidelines for the home H2 generators along with its
interface with the home and car?
University of Montana
The answer to your question has three parts:
1. To site a hydrogen generator in a home, it
should be "listed" or "approved" by an independent testing
laboratory: therefore, look at the UL or CSA standards -
UL 2264 A, B or C and CSA FC5,
and CSA International Requirements No. 5.99.
sells a PEM based water electrolyzer, HOGEN S-series, that
is CE marked.
2. There is currently no installation standard for hydrogen
generators; however, I would use NFPA 853, Installation of
Fuel Cell Power Systems, as a guideline. It addresses the
same safety issues; piping, shutoff valves, leak detection,
alarms, ventilation, etc.
Energy has installed its HOGEN S-series
electrolyzers in residential/demo applications using the
National Electrical Code, NFPA 52 & NFPA 55 or the 2003 ICC
3. The interface with a car is being addressed by the
Society of Automotive
Engineers, Fuel Cell Standards Committee, Interface Working
See SAE J2600, - J2601, J2783 and J2799-TIR.
Feeding PEM Fuel
I very much
understand that your bulletin board is not to become a forum
in which everyone can freely post. I really appreciate this
website as it provides a clear and structured overview of CS
for all H2/FC applications.
May I add to your
replies to Evren Firat that several directives may apply to
any type of product since directives often target groups of
products. For sure the essential requirements of the Marine
Equipment directive (which takes into account the requirements
agreed by IMO (international maritime organization) has to be
fulfilled, but also others may apply according to the
standards are aimed at facilitating global trade, CE marking
is a result of conformation to the essential requirements of
EU directives system. European standards (or EN-IEC) standards
may include Annex ZZ indicating to which requirements are
related to which clauses of the standard. He should therefore
keep in alert on any EN-IEC standards of the working groups
you mentioned Lastly (however as an independent source, I
don't know whether you are allowed to make references) you may
draw his attention to the report No.
CG-D-11-01 of your
US coast guard research and development center titled codes
and standards for marine fuel cells (although being slightly
outdated as it was published in 2001) for him to get a feeling
that his question can not be easily explained. In Europe, the
Lloyd group is one of the organization which are active on
conformity assessment procedures in the area of equipment on
I hope that this
information might help him.
All the best
Marine Fuel Processors feeding PEM Fuel Cells
Q: I am a Student and working on a
project, that is about standardization of PEM Fuel Cells fed
up with LPG based reformer in order to supply on board
electrical energy for sailing yachts.
I need to know the
suitable directives; those are required to affix CE seal on
such products especially marine applications and also basic
requirements in order to enter American market.
I am looking
forward to hearing from you.
For auxiliary power, I would start with
IEC TC105 Working Group #7, to be
published later this year as IEC 62282-5-1. Also see Q&A dated
Voller Energy, this June, will begin prototype testing on
a 1 kW environmentally friendly fuel cell that aims to replace
commonly used diesel generators in sailing and motor yachts.
I am so thankful for your answer. But I couldn't find
this IEC TC 105 Working Group #7 to read it out. Is it about
CE Mark otherwise something else?
Whose of EU Directives for CE Marking do i need to enter such
Reformer based Fuel Cell System into European and then USA
What is the difference between Codes and Standards?
I must write a report about these Topic but i am really
confused. The regulation and the required directives for CE,
TÜV, DIN and USA look definety similar and complex. However my
topic is also about on Sailing Yachts which makes the
regulations complexier i think.
I ask you for your help
With my best regards
You should be confused. You’re asking complex
questions, some of which don’t have satisfactory answers.
Codes vs. Standards
The difference between a code and a standard is
that a code carries the force of law.
In the US, the standard for a
stationary fuel cell is CSA America FC1. State (California,
New York, etc.) building codes may require a fuel cell to be
certified to this standard if the fuel cell is to be located
within a home.
The pressure vessel standard
becomes a code (ASME Boiler & Pressure Vessel Code) because it
has been incorporated into all 50 states’ regulations.
The US and Europe use different systems to
demonstrate that a product is safe. The US uses an independent
testing laboratory, such as Underwriters Laboratories (UL) or
CSA, to test products to specific standards and verify
compliance. Europe uses self-declaration by the manufacturer
that its product meets the applicable European directives.
Standard for Shipboard Fuel
Cell Power System
I know of no standard for a shipboard fuel
cell, nor code (in the US) that would address onboard
equipment. From a practical standpoint; however, the owner,
and his insurance company would be very interested to know
that this equipment would not be very likely to cause a fire
or explosion and was somewhat reliable. To be saleable:
For the US market:
You would have your system evaluated by UL or CSA, and they
would probably use portions of CSA America FC1 (stationary) or
FC3 (portable) and other considerations for a maritime
environment to evaluate your product.
For the European market:
You would have your system evaluated by TUV, and they would
determine which directives your product should comply with.
Later this year, TC105 will publish IEC
62282-3-1 (Stationary Fuel Cell Power Systems) and IEC
62282-5-1 (Portable Fuel Cell Power Systems) as the result of
its Working Groups 3 and 7 efforts. These documents will
almost certainly be adopted immediately as European EN
You are ahead of the curve. The standards will
have to catch up. The first system for this application will
pave the way for others to follow.
Hydrogen fuel station
Q: We are planning to construct a
Hydrogen Fuel Station at one of our petrol service station,
making use of the available spare space. I would like to know
what are the safe clearance- distances to be provided between
equipments of hydrogen facility and the existing facilities.
Where can I find out details on the above- codes & standards.
Also, what are the safety considerations to be kept in view
while constructing the facility- both operational and
B B Raina
Indian Oil Co.
The issues you raise are primarily site
specific, so that my comments (although they may be typical)
are only applicable for the United States.
This is a major issue in the United States.
Clearance distances, are addressed in US state regulations. In
most cases, this distance (50 feet from potential hydrogen
leak to potential ignition source) had its origin in a decades
old standard, NFPA 50 (now incorporated into NFPA 55).
Although this criterion was not based on scientific data, it
was never challenged because it was typically used in
industrial applications where distances were generally not an
issue. Now that there are potential hydrogen applications in
retail environments, the US Department of Energy (DOE) is
sponsoring research to determine an appropriate distance. It
is anticipated that changing local regulations will be a slow
The National Hydrogen Association recently
addressed this subject at its 2006 Fuel Cell Seminar.
Presentations from that workshop can be found at:
The US DOE has scheduled a “Workshop on
Facilitating Permitting of Hydrogen Fueling Stations” on
February 1, 2007 in Sacramento, California hosted by the
California Air Resources Board.
A valuable resource may be “Hydrogen and Fuel
Cells Permitting Guide: Module 2 – Permitting Hydrogen Motor
Fuel Dispensing Facility” which can be found at
Hydrogen fuel station
Is there a standard for hydrogen dispensing hose? 12.1.06
CSA America HGV4.2, Hose and Hose Assemblies
for Hydrogen vehicles and Dispensing Systems (Editor)
Hydrogen fuel station/vehicle communications
How do I find out the wiring standards for fuel
station/vehicle communication so that a vehicle can interface
with the station using a comm/ground cable. The type of
connector and pin designation information is needed.
A: The Society of
Automotive Engineers' (SAE) Fuel Cell Standards Committee is
the global leader for standards in this area. Its Interface
Working Group is working on the following Standards:
1. SAE J2600 for refueling devices up to 35 MPa
was published in 2002. It covers only the nozzle and
receptacle. It does not cover the hardwired
connector used in many demo vehicles.
2. SAE J2601 is in draft form, addresses
communications and refueling
protocol. It has selected a wireless link for
3. SAE J2799 is the technical report for the 70
MPa nozzle and station to vehicle wireless communications to
be released in the 1st quarter of
There are no current plans to institutionalize
a wired communication scheme.
(Mike Steele/Glenn Scheffler/Jesse Schneider)
Siting Distance for Hydrogen
Q: It appears that there are two types of siting
distances; A)those that are dictated by the flame jet
(distance to combustible walls, public walkways, etc) where
there is a danger from flame and radiant heat and B) those
that are dictated by the unignited plume of released gas
(distance to ordinary electricals, windows, air vents) where
there is a risk of ignition/deflagration/detonation. The
Sandia work seems to have caused concern about the existing
distances, so people are proposing the "2 hour barrier" in
lieu of shorter distances in the table. HOWEVER, that method
is not being allowed for the "plume" type problems; e.g.; you
will not be able to use a barrier wall to reduce your distance
to an air inlet. It seems to me that Mike Swain's work at U of
Miami would support reduction of distances for the "plume"
type exposures, but I don't see anyone taking action on that.
My understanding is that the ICC Ad Hoc Committee concentrated
on the "barrier wall" approach to reduce what I'm calling the
"Type A" distances. THE PROBLEM IS THAT THE DISTANCE TO AIR
INLETS AND WALL OPENINGS WILL STILL MAKE IT IMPRACTICAL TO
SITE HYDROGEN IN MANY OF THE APPLICATIONS THAT ARE MOST LIKELY
TO APPLY FUEL CELLS TODAY. I am interested in others views on
this topic and what can be done to take advantage of what has
been learned at U of Miami.
George Earle - Plug Power
A: In september 2004, a report entitled "Hydrogen
Clearance Distances" written by Andrei Tchouvelev and a group
of Canadian experts was submitted to National Resources of
Canada for the Canadian Transportation Fuel Cell Alliances.
The report was based, in part, on the work done by Dr. Swain
and Sandia Laboratories. It put forth reasonable separation
distances and the rational supporting its recommendations, in
a code friendly fashion.
Marine Fuel Processors feeding PEM Fuel Cells
Q: Are there any fuel processor and fuel cell standards
that apply to marine primary propulsions systems?
A: The simple answer is no. However I would start with
Fuel Cell (CSA America FC1 & IEC TC105 WG#3) and Fuel
Processor (ISO TC197 WG#8 & WG#9) standards, and then add
additional requirements for shipboard equipment from US Navy
Q: I am looking for what the DOE calls the "federal
enclosed-area safety standard" with respect to hydrogen
storage. This is the standard cited in the FreedomCAR project
A: The question relates to a table in a DOE document found
Under Permeation and Leakage, it appears that the phrase
"federal enclosed-area safety standard" should have read
"meets applicable standards" just like the targets next to it
on the table (ie general rather than specific).
Fuel Cell Primer?
Q: My company is beginning a portable
fuel cell project. I am the Safety Coordinator and am having a
difficult time finding information on safe manufacturing
principles. Can anyone give me a hand?
Bill Kitchen, McDowell Research
A: FOR YOUR OPERATIONS:A.The basics, excellent and free,
1. NASA Safety Standard for Hydrogen and Hydrogen Systems,
Guidelines for Hydrogen Design, Materials Selection,
Operations, Storage and Transportation (available at
www.hq.nasa.gov/office/codeq/doctree/871916.pdf), 2. consult
your hydrogen supplier - he should be experienced with
handling and transporting hydrogen and filling tanks. B. Other
sources of information: CGA, NFPA 55 and ISO TC197 WG#7. FOR
YOUR PRODUCT: Review your design with one of the following
(depending on size) 1. CSA America FC3 - Portable Fuel Cell
Powerplants or 2. IEC TC105 WG#8 - Micro Fuel Cell Power
Codes & Standards Questions
Q: In view of the codes & standards for
Fuel Cell system testing, i will like to know what are the
critical parameters that is required to establish when we
performance testing for stationary power & vehicular
applications. As there are a number of standards adopted by
different countries, how do we justify which standard is
suitable for adoption?
A1: There are a number of ways that US
standards are created, and deemed suitable for adoption. For
example, ANSI provides accredidation for expert standards
development organizations to develop standards in their areas
of expertise. ANSI requires a strict consensus process to
ensure a wide range of interested parties have access to the
process and can participate in the development and review of
draft standards. There are other standards development
organizations that also create stakeholder committees and
working groups for specific areas, but the bottom line is that
they pull together experts in the areas to be covered who
agree a standard is needed, and they develop a draft for
broader review and input. Often the applicable trade
associations are invited to participate to help ensure further
concensus building. A standard, say, for hydrogen fuel cells
in vehicles might involve participants from the SAE, NHA, and
USFCC. In this case, the SAE would likely take the lead in the
development of the standard, as they are a standard
development organization. Their working groups are open to
other experts and interested parties, as long as the
participant contributes to the activity. Both the USFCC and
NHA have active working groups tracking and contributing to
the development of codes and standards for hydrogen energy
systems and fuel cells. USFCC members can join this working
group. The NHA's activities are open to all interested
parties, and are reported monthly at www.HydrogenSafety.info,
a free electronic newsletter that provides updates on
activities and announcements when codes and standards
development organizations are seeking additional experts.
A2: The answer to your question is related to the
regulatory system used in Singapore. Does Singapore develop
its own standards or does it adopt standards from different
parts of the world? (Product standards from North America
typically are designed for independent testing laboratories to
certify that a product is safe. EU standards are designed for
manufacturers to self-declare that their product is safe.
International standards, i.e. IEC, tries to hamonized these
differences.) In the final analysis, all these standards are
concerned with safety. You must identify potential hazards
created by your product, and which standard best addresses
those hazards. If you can provide insight on the regulatory
system used in Singapore, and your product of interest, I
might be able to identify specific standards for your
Hydrogen Fuel Injection
Q: To date, there has been considerable
time and effort expended with the goal of producing
comprehensive, international codes and standards to deal with
gaseous hydrogen, in bulk, hydrogen ICE applications and
hydrogen fuel cell applications. For over five years, a
company in Canada has been selling significant quantities of a
hydrogen fuel injection system that uses an advanced
electrolyser to split distilled water, then inject the
hydrogen and oxygen into the air intake manifold. In the
engine, the hydrogen acts as an initiator to promote far more
complete combustion of any hydrocarbon powered engine, with
significant fuel savings, decreased maintenance expenses and
dramatic reduction in tailpipe emissions. My question is this,
what protection has been built in to the production of codes
and standards to ensure that the legitimate protections
required for 5000 psi tanks does not, inadvertently, create
huge barriers for products with minimal amounts of hydrogen
(22 psi in the case of the Canadian Hydrogen Energy HFI
system)? Should there be a separate stream devoted to the
creation of appropriate standards for products that use small
amounts of hydrogen, and produce that hydrogen only on demand
(i.e. no hydrogen is ever stored)? I would be most grateful
for any thoughts on this subject and suggestions on how best
to solve the dual challenge of ensuring that necessary
standards apply to this sort of product - but appropriate
standards, at that. Thank you.
A: Standards dealing with the storage or transportation of
hydrogen should have no impact on the application you
describe. I would; however, become familiar with the following
electrolyzer standards:(1) UL2264/CSA America FC5, Gaseous
Hydrogen Generation Appliances;(2) CSA Int'l Requirement No.
5.99, Hydrogen Generators;(3)ISO TC197 WG#8, Hydrogen
Generators Using Electrolysis Process. In addition, the
following SAE documents might provide safety guidelines for
your application:SAE J2578, General Fuel Cell Vehicle Safety;
SAE J2579, Fuel Systems for Fuel Cell Vehicles.
occupational and technical skill standards for
Q: I am currently seeking information on
the availability of skill standards for technicians who would
be working with fuel cell or fuel reformers. Do you know if
there are such standards? Spokane Intercollegiate Research and
Technology Institute (SIRTI) and the Spokane Community College
are collaborating on the development of a training program. It
would be great if we didn't reinvent the wheel. Any
information on these kinds of standards?
Cathy Baxter, Ex., Spokane Community College
A1: Several similar programs have been
started around the country. Among them are: Naugatuck Valley
Community College (1 yr. certificate); Texas Fuel Cell
Technology Consortium (2yr. assoc. degree); Stack State
College of Technology (assoc. degree); Kattering University.
I've asked representatives of the following organizations to
respond to your questions if they have additional information:
UTC Fuel Cells; General Motors; Plug Power; Fuel Cell Energy;
Siemens/Westinghouse; US Fuel Cell Council; US Department of
A2: Another similar program; California State University
Safety information on Hydrogen Fuel Cells
Q: I am trying to find all the safety
information on Hydrogen fuel cells, Can you point me in the
right direction? Thanks Ed Scott Explosive Safety
Office/Mission Safety Crane Division, Naval Surface Warfare
Center (NSWC Crane) Harnessing the Power of Technology for the
Warfighter Code RP1, Bldg. 2 300 Highway 361 Crane, IN
A: As a starting point try "Basic Considerations for the
Safety of Hydrogen Systems". It is available from www.iso.ch
as ISO/TR 15916:2004.