Society of Automotive Engineers
    Safety Working Group

Organization Society of Automotive Engineers
Mission Recommend design and construction, operation, emergency response and maintenance practices for the safe use of fuel cell vehicles by the general public.

Identification SAE J1766
Recommended Practice for Electric and Hybrid Electric Vehicle Battery Systems Crash Integrity Testing
Scope Electric, Fuel Cell and Hybrid vehicles may contain many types of high voltage systems. Adequate barriers between occupants and the high voltage systems are necessary to provide protection from potentially harmful electric current and materials within the high voltage system that can cause injury to occupants of the vehicle during and after a crash. This SAE Recommended Practice is applicable to Electric, Fuel Cell and Hybrid vehicles designs that are comprised of at least one vehicle propulsion voltage bus with a nominal operating voltage greater than 60 and less than 1,500 VDC, or greater than 30 and less than 1,000 VAC. This Recommended Practice addresses post-crash electrical safety, retention of electrical propulsion components and electrolyte spillage.

Status Third edition published January 2014. Available at

Identification SAE J2578
Recommended Practice for General Fuel Cell Vehicle Safety
Scope This SAE Recommended Practice identifies and defines requirements relating to the safe integration of the fuel cell system, the hydrogen fuel storage and handling systems (as defined and specified in SAE J2579) and high voltage electrical systems into the overall Fuel Cell Vehicle. The document may also be applied to hydrogen vehicles with internal combustion engines. This document relates to the overall design, construction, operation and maintenance of fuel cell vehicles. 1.1 Purpose The purpose of this document is to provide mechanical and electrical system safety guidelines, safety criteria and methodologies that should be considered when designing fuel cell vehicles for use on public roads. 1.2 Field of Application This document is applicable to fuel cell vehicles designed for use on public roads.

The 3rd edition was published in August 2014. Available at



SAE J2579

Standard for Fuel Systems in Fuel Cell and Other Hydrogen Vehicles

Scope The purpose of this document is to define design, construction, operational, and maintenance requirements for hydrogen fuel storage and handling systems in on-road vehicles. Performance-based requirements for verification of design prototype and production hydrogen storage and handling systems are also defined in this document. Complementary test protocols (for use in type approval or self-certification) to qualify designs (and/or production) as meeting the specified performance requirements are described. Crashworthiness of hydrogen storage and handling systems is beyond the scope of this document. SAE J2578 includes requirements relating to crashworthiness and vehicle integration for fuel cell vehicles. It defines recommended practices related to the integration of hydrogen storage and handling systems, fuel cell system, and electrical systems into the overall Fuel Cell Vehicle. NOTE: Ultimate design qualification for crash impact resistance is achieved by demonstrated compliance of the vehicle with applicable regulations.
Status Originally published December 2002. Updated and re-published in January 2009 and March 2013.  Available at

Revision to Appendices B3 and D (marked for guidance only, not requirements) in progress. Ballot expected in January 2018 with publication by mid 2018. Preliminary work on non-metallic materials has begun.


Identification SAE J2760
Technical Information Report for
Pressure Terminology Used in Fuel Cells and Other Hydrogen Vehicle Applications

The purpose of this document is to disseminate definitions used in SAE J2579.


Originally published May 2006. Updated and re-published June 2011. Available at


SAE J2990/1

Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Vehicle First and Second Responder Recommended Practice


Electric and alternative fueled vehicles present different hazards for first and second responders than conventional gasoline internal combustion engines. Hydrogen vehicles including Fuel Cell Vehicles (FCVs) involved in incidents may present unique hazards associated with the fuel storage and high voltage systems. The electrical hazards associated with the high voltage systems of hybrid-electric vehicles and FCVs are already addressed in the parent document, SAE J2990. This Recommended Practice therefore addresses electric issues by reference to J2990 and supplements J2990, to address the potential consequences associated with hydrogen vehicle incidents and suggest common procedures to help protect emergency responders, tow and/or recovery, storage, repair, and salvage personnel after an incident has occurred. Industry design standards and tools were studied and where appropriate, suggested for responsible organizations to implement.



Published June 2016.  Available at





SAE J 3089

Technical Information Report (TIR) for Vehicular Hydrogen Sensor Test Method



This SAE Technical Information Report (TIR) provides test methods for evaluating hydrogen sensors when the hydrogen system integrator and/or vehicle manufacturer elect to use such devices on board their hydrogen or fuel cell vehicles. The test methods are performance-based using environmental and operating conditions defined in SAE J2578. Since the use of the on-board hydrogen sensors is not standardized or regulated, the implementation of these sensors can vary greatly from vehicle to vehicle. In general, the test methods considered the widest reasonable range of operating conditions based on different possible sensor implementations within the vehicle. For example, the on-board sensor could be located in relatively dry environments like the passenger compartment or in “damp” environments such as the process exhaust from the fuel cell system. For this reason, the system integrator and/or vehicle manufacturer need to determine which test methods and associated test conditions are applicable for their implementation(s) and define specific test acceptance criteria based on the achieving the required performance of their process control and protective systems within the vehicle




Ballot expected in January 2018.



Committee Infromation
Chairman Michael Veenstra
Secretariat SAE